With a population of around 42 million (2019) and CO2 emissions per capita of 4.47 mt, Ukraine is one of the most energy-intensive economies in Europe. The largest GHG emissions in Ukraine are place in the energy sector – around 66%. As an Annex I Party to the UNFCCC, Ukraine had already a commitment until 2020 to reduce its GHG emissions levels by 20% below 1990 levels. Ukraine’s First Nationally Determined Contribution set a new target to cap GHG emissions at 60% of 1990 GHG emission levels in 2030.
Air temperatures rise in Ukraine is ahead of global trends, hence in Ukraine there is a likelihood of potential shifts in agricultural zones leading to marked water deficiencies, which can compromise the country’s food security and economic growth. Ukraine is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and has identified agriculture, water resources, energy, transportation, health, the urban environment and forests, and coastal zone management as key adaptation priorities.
Ukraine’s climate change provisions are scattered amongst several laws, resolutions and governmental decrees. The Law (2010) on the Main Principles (strategy) of the State Environmental Policy of Ukraine until 2020 envisages, among other things, the development and phased implementation of a national action plan to mitigate climate change for the period up to 2030. Ukraine adopted a 2020 National Renewable Energy Action Plan in 2014, which sets a target to increase Ukraine’s share of renewables to 11% of total final energy consumption by 2020. In 2018 Ukraine adopted its 2050 Low Emission Development Strategy. The Law “On the Principles of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions” will enter into force on 1 January 2021. The National Designed Authority in the climate change area is the Ministry of Energy and Environmental Protection of Ukraine.