Armenia

  • With a population of around 3 million (2020), Armenia contributes as little as 0.02% to the total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and is in the lower range of per capita footprint with 3.33 t CO2e. Armenia’s GHG emissions fell by about 70% between 1990 and 1995, and then fluctuated between 7 and 8,5 Mio t CO2eq until 2010. In the latest available year (2017) GHG are at level of 10,6 Mio t, which is an increase of 25% from 2010. This increase was mainly driven by increased economic activity (+46%) and counterbalanced by a decrease in population (-8%). Comparison of the latest year shows that emission intensity per GDP is the lowest compared with the other EaP countries. In its updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) 2021-2030, Armenia sets the economy-wide GHG emission reduction single year target of 40% by 2030 compared with the base year 1990.

    Energy and agriculture are the two sectors with the largest GHG emission shares, and therefore this is where the majority of the mitigation potential lies.

  • Climate change is already affecting Armenia, with an annual temperature increase higher than the global average and a significant decrease in precipitation.

  • Armenia’s NC4 (2020) reports that it experienced an average temperature rise of 1.23°C between 1929-2016 while a 10% reduction in average annual precipitation volume was documented over the period 1935-2012. BUR3 (2021) reports that during the period of 1990-2019 deviation of the average annual temperature from the baseline period (1961-1991) was in average 0.9°C. In 2019, a deviation of 1.5°C from the annual average temperature for the period of 1961-1990 was recorded. IPCC projections suggest Armenia could experience warming at levels significantly above the global average, with potential warming of 4.7°C by the 2090s, above the 1986 2005 baseline, under the highest emissions pathway (RCP8.5). Increased drought risks, floods and landslide hazards, a reduction of the total arable land and the yield of staple crops will be driving significant changes in ecosystem composition, dryland expansion, water availability and food production.
  • Climate change is increasing the vulnerability of Armenia, with an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events, worsening desertification and land degradation. The most vulnerable sectors are agriculture, human health, water resources, forestry, transport and energy infrastructure.

     

  • The Strategic Programme of Prospective Development 2014-2025 – the overarching development strategy of the country – mentions climate change as an issue that needs to be addressed in order to improve rates of economic growth. A strong focus is given to mitiga- tion and emissions reduction. The country has a set of climate-rele- vant environ- mental laws with further amendments (e.g. Water Code, 2002, and Law on Energy Saving and Renewable Energy, 2004) and policies (e.g. National Forest Policy, 2004, and the Strategy of the Main Directions Ensuring Economic Development in Agricultural Sector 2020-2030, 2019, the Strategic Programme for the Development of the Energy Sector of the Republic of Armenia (until 2040)). However, these existing laws and policies do not have a specific focus on climate change. To address this, the government decided to develop national action plans for all climate-sensitive sectors. The National Strategy on Disaster Risk Management (2017) integrates climate change and incorporates Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

    The National Action Programme of Adaptation to Climate Change and the list of Measures for 2021-2025 were approved by the Government of Armenia in May 2021. The designated authority for climate change in Armenia is the Ministry of Environment and an Inter-Agency Coordination Council for the Implementation of the Requirements and Provisions of the UNFCCC was established in 2012 and upgraded in 2021.

Climate policy development and advancing cooperation with the EU in Armenia

The EU cooperates with Armenia through the Eastern Partnership, the eastern regional dimension of the EU’s European Neighbourhood Policy. The EU-Armenia Comprehensive and Enhanced Partnership Agreement (CEPA), from June 2018, covers transport, energy and environment/climate amongst other things. Environment and adaptation to climate change are supported by improving water resources management and transboundary cooperation, mainstreaming environmental goals, developing sounder environmental governance, enhancing environmental awareness, improving the sustainable management of key natural resources and promoting climate change resilience. Armenia is moving forward on its sustainable energy and climate resilience pathway, with strong support from the EU and international financing institutions.

      • 2014
        • Strategic Program of Prospective
          Development 2014-2025
      • 2015
        • INDC 2015-2050
        • COP21 Paris Agreement
        • Pledge to Sustainable Developent
          Agenda 2030
      • 2016
        • Stakeholder consultation for National
          Adaptation Plan (NAP)
        • 1st Biennial Update Report submitted to
          the UNFCCC
      • 2017
        • Ratification of Paris Agreement
        • National Strategy on Disaster Risk
          Management
        • Energy Community Secretariat assistance
      • 2018
        • Comprehensive and Enhanced
          Partnership Agreement (CEPA) with EU
        • CEPA Roadmap
        • 2nd Biennial Update Report to the UNFCCC
      • 2019
        • EU4Climate launched
      • 2020
        • 4th National Communication
          to the UNFCCC
        • NAP
      • 2021
        • Updated NDC 2021-2030
        • 3rd Biennial Update Report to the UNFCCC
        • National Adaptation Plan and List of Measures for 2021-2025 -under development
      • 2022
        • NDC Financing Strategy & Investment Plan
        • LT-LEDS of Armenia
        • National Programme on Energy Saving and Renewable Energy for 2021 to 2030

EU4Climate key policy interventions and expected impact

  • Armenia is a country with an ambitious climate change agenda, which makes significant efforts towards a low carbon development through increasing the share of renewable energy, promoting energy efficiency, preserving and enhancing forest-covered areas and reporting regularly to the UNFCCC.
    However, as a developing country, Armenia needs international financial, technological and capacity-building support.

  • The EU4Climate Programme, funded by the European Union, aims to support the development and implementation of climate-related policies by the Eastern Partnership countries. EU4Climate supports Armenia’s commitment to update and enhance the country’s NDC in 2021, with an ultimate goal to identify a realistic implementation strategy for the limitation of GHG emissions and prioritization of adaptation measures for coping with risks to the country’s sustainable development. The main tool for the successful implementation of the Armenian NDC, as well as the Climate Action SDG, is a long-term Low Emission Development Strategy (LEDS), including the development of energy and agriculture sectoral strategies. A robust domestic emissions measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) system will be established, to inform the government and the international community of the progress of its NDC implementation. Throughout the programme, the best international and EU practices will be applied, including alignment with EU Acquis in accordance with the CEPA.

Result areas and timeframe in Armenia

RESULT AREAS

2019

2020

2021

2022

 

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

NDC

Long-term LEDS

MRV System

EU Climate Acquis

Climate mainstreaming

Climate investment

Adaptation planning

  • Implementation of EU4Climate activities started in Armenia in the second half of 2019. laying the foundation for assisting the country in the implementation of Armenia’s commitments under the Paris Agreement.

Full country profile can be downloaded here.