Republic of Moldova

  • With a population of around 3.15 million (2019), Moldova contributes as little as 0.03% to the total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and is amongst the lowest range of the per capita footprint with 4.4 t CO2e. The key emitter sectors are[1]:





  • GHG emissions decreased between 1990 and 1995 by 60% and reached their lowest level in 2000 with 11,6 Mio t CO2eq. Since then, GHG emissions have slowly increased to more than 14 Mio. t CO2eq and stabilized since then. The substantial increase in GDP (+63% between 2010 and 2016) resulted in further decoupling of GHG emissions and economic development which is mainly driven by agricultural activities and the service sector. In its updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), the Republic of Moldova has committed to more ambitious targets than in its first NDC.

    The country’s new economy-wide unconditional target is to reduce its GHG emissions by 70% below its 1990 level in 2030, instead of 64-67% as committed in the first NDC, which could be further increased to 88%, if international low-cost financial resources, technology transfer, and technical cooperation are ensured. The BUR3 reports that over the last 132 years, the Republic of Moldova has experienced changes in average values of temperature and precipitation. The country had become warmer, with an average temperature increase of more than 1.2°C, while the increase in precipitation was only 51.3 mm.

  • Moldova is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability, and the socio-economic costs of climate change related to hazards such as (1) droughts, (2) floods, (3) late spring frost, (4) hail are significant.

  • Increasingly erratic weather patterns have resulted in loss of life and income through rising food and energy prices. The most vulnerable sectors are agriculture, human health, water resources, forestry, transport and energy.

  • Climate change is streamlined into the main strategic planning document of the country – the National Development Strategy “European Moldova 2030” (2022). Moldova approved in 2017 its Low Emissions Development Strategy for the year 2030. The National Integrated Energy and Climate Plan of the Republic of Moldova will outline the climate change mitigation in the sector until 2030 and 2050 horizontal. The Republic of Moldova is advancing in the second cycle of its National Adaptation Planning process (NAP2) and the  second iteration of the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (until 2030) is developed and under promotion

    Under the Climate Change Coordinating Mechanism, approved by the Government in 2020, the National Commission on Climate Change has been established as an inter-institutional body for the purpose of coordinating and promoting the measures and actions necessary for the unitary application on the territory of the Republic of Moldova of the provisions of the UNFCCC and of the Paris Agreement.

Climate policy development and advancing cooperation with the EU in Moldova

The EU-Moldova Association Agreement, including a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (AA/DCFTA), fully entered into force on 1 July 2016 after being applied provisionally since September 2014. The Agreement significantly strengthens the political association and economic integration between Moldova and the EU.

With extensive support from the EU, Moldova is making gradual progress on the approximation of the EU environmental and energy legislation to ensure energy security and diversify supply sources, including through renewable energy.

The EU has supported climate change related actions in the transport sector as well, amongst others, by improving clean public transport in the largest cities and restructuring and modernizing the Moldovan railway sector. Moldova is moving forward on its low-carbon and climate resilient development pathway, with strong support from the EU and international financing institutions.

    • 2014
      • Association Agreement with the EU
      • 3rd National Communication
      • National Adaptation Strategy until 2020
    • 2015
      • INDC 2016-2030
      • COP21 Paris Agreement
      • Pledge to Sustainable Developent
        Agenda 2030
    • 2016
      • Biennial Update Report 1 (BUR)
      • LEDS (2016-2030)
      • Revised National Renewable Energy
        Action Plan (NREAP) (2018-2020)
    • 2017
      • LEDS 2030 entered into force
      • Ratification of Paris Agreement
      • Third GHG Inventory submitted
    • 2018
      • Environment Agency set up
      • 4rd National Communication
      • National Measurement, Reporting and
        Verification (MRV) System set up
      • National Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) System set up
      • BUR2
    • 2019
      • EU4Climate launched
      • 3rd National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP) (2019-2021)
    • 2020
      • Draft F-gases Law
      • Updated NDC (2021-2030)
      • NAP 2 launched
    • 2021
      • Draft updated LEDS 2030
      • Enhanced Transparency Framework
    • 2022
      • F-gases Law adopted
      • National Development Strategy “European Moldova 2030” adopted
      • MRV implementation capacity building
    • 2023
      • Adoption of the updated LEDS 2030
      • Adoption of the NAS
      • Climate Chage law designed
      • NECP designed

EU4Climate key policy interventions and expected impact

  • Moldova is working towards establishing a strong foundation for low emission and climate resilient growth, being the fourth country to submit to UNFCCC a very ambitious second NDC. In addition, Moldovan Institutions increasingly recognize the importance of adapting to new climatic conditions and pledge a strong commitment to increasing preparedness to address disasters and climate risks.

    However, being a developing country, with limited capacity, Moldova needs additional support to the national efforts through international financial, technological, and capacity building assistance.


    On 23 June 2022, the European Council adopted conclusions on the membership applications from Ukraine, the Republic of Moldova and Georgia and has decided to grant the status of candidate country to Ukraine and to the Republic of Moldova, also recognizing the European perspective of Georgia.

EU4Climate in Moldova

  • The EU4Climate Programme, funded by the European Union, aims to support the development and implementation of climate-related policies by the Eastern Partnership countries.

    The EU4Climate initiative supports Moldova in elaborating its long-term low emission development strategy and mainstreaming climate in the sectoral strategies. A robust domestic emissions monitoring, reporting and verification system will be established, to inform the government and the international community on the progress of its NDC implementation. Throughout the programme, the best international and EU practices will be applied.

Result areas and timeframe in Moldova






















Long-term LEDS

MRV System

EU Climate Acquis

Climate mainstreaming

Climate investment

Adaptation planning

  • The EU4Climate substantial activities started in Moldova in the second half of 2019 and laid the footing for a systematic implementation of the requirements of the Paris Agreement and the commitments of Moldova under it. Throughout the programme, the best international and EU practices will be applied, including some alignment with the EU Acquis included in bilateral agreements and the Energy Community Treaty on Climate Action.

Full country profile can be downloaded here.