Belarus

  • With a population of around 9.5 million (2019), Belarus represents a relatively small portion, 0.18%, of total global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In 2018, CO2e emissions per capita for Belarus were 6.8 t, and though the indicator fluctuated substantially in recent years, it tended to increase. The carbon intensity of the economy in the period 1995-2012 decreased almost 4 times, making it the fastest rate of progress toward low-carbon development in Europe.

    In Belarus, energy and agriculture are the two sectors with the largest GHG emission shares, and this is where the majority of the mitigation potential lies.

    As an Annex I country, in its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), Belarus made an unconditional quantified emission reduction target to reduce GHG emissions by at least 28% until 2030, compared to 1990.

  • The country faces significant climate change-related threats.

    Temperatures (1), floods (2), droughts (3), precipitation (4) have begun to diverge from historical patterns, which will impact multiple sectors.

  • Water, while abundant within Belarus, may deteriorate in quality due to increased flooding, extreme rain events, and changes in runoff patterns. In a country with almost 40.1% forested land, rising temperatures are likely to change ecosystem function, forest composition, and certain species of trees, such as spruce, will suffer. Drought and increased temperatures could make forests more vulnerable to climate-related threats, such as disease outbreaks and forest fires.
    The most vulnerable sectors are
    agriculture, human health, forestry, water resources, and energy.

     

  • There are various binding legislative provisions and other regulations in effect in Belarus, specifying policies and measures with targets for the reduction of GHG emissions and the energy intensity of the economy. The National Sustainable Development Strategy for the period 2021-2030 places due emphasis on low-emission development. Belarus adopted a green economy strategy until 2030, with a focus on green innovation, improving the quality of life and increasing the competitiveness of the national economy. The government has also been integrating the SDGs into national development planning, having invested in legal frameworks and public campaigns for action in this area. In terms of sustainable energy, Belarus has started to electrify its transport infrastructure and invest in energy efficiency. It has also been actively supporting decentralised solar energy systems with a focus on hospitals, schools and other public buildings. The National Designated Authority in the climate change area is the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection.

Climate policy development and advancing cooperation with the EU in Belarus

Belarus has been participating actively in the multilateral formats of the Eastern Partnership. Through the EBRD-managed Eastern Europe Energy Efficiency and Environment Partnership, Belarus has access to €10 million for key projects in energy efficiency and environmental protection. EU support has helped to improve energy efficiency in a number of educational facilities and residential buildings. Bilateral dialogue on environment and climate action has taken place on an annual basis. Belarus is moving forward on its sustainable energy pathway, which is supported by the EU and international financing institutions.

    • 2014
      •  Biennial   Report   1
    • 2015
      • INDC 2016-2030
      • COP21 Paris Agreement
      • Pledge to Sustainable Developent
        Agenda 2030
      • Biennial Report 2
    • 2016
      • Ratification of Paris Agreement
      • State Program “Environmental Protection
        and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources”
    • 2017
      • EU Bilateral Partnership Priorities
        negotiation (2017-2020)
    • 2019
      • EU4Climate launched
      • Biennial Report 3
    • 2020
      • Updated NDC 2021-2030
      • National Strategy for Sustainable
        Development
      • Biennial Report 4
    • 2021
      • Second NDC – under development
      • Updated 7th National Communication under development
      • Programme for the social and economic development of the Republic of Belarus 2021-2025

EU4Climate key policy interventions and expected impact

 

  • The Government of the Republic of Belarus pays considerable attention to the problems of climate change and has in place some strategic policies and measures aimed at sustainable and green development. Together with sustainable energy and energy efficiency, the importance of measures to improve the quality of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases is emphasised, as forests occupy a vast part of its territory. Belarus reporting under the UNFCCC follows the stringent rules for developed countries.
    However, as a country with an economy in transition, and possessing insufficient capacity to meet the challenges of the transition to low-emission and climate-resilient development, it is eligible for international climate change support.

  • The EU4Climate Programme, funded by the European Union, aims to support the development and implementation of climate-related policies by the Eastern Partnership countries. Specifically, this initiative seeks to support Belarus in meeting its commitments under the Paris Agreement, through providing support to decision-makers and planners in preparing and adopting an enhanced Nationally Determined Contribution in 2020, and the required low carbon and climate-resilient development strategic documents for its implementation. Throughout the programme, the best international and EU practices will be applied, including some alignment with the EU Acquis.

Result areas and timeframe in Belarus

RESULT AREAS

2019

2020

2021

2022

 

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4

NDC

Long-term LEDS

MRV System

EU Climate Acquis

Climate mainstreaming

Climate investment

Adaptation planning

Full country profile can be downloaded here.