With a population of around 3.15 million (2019), Moldova contributes as little as 0.026% to the total global GHG emissions and is amongst the lower range of the per capita footprint with 2.13 mt CO2e. The key emitter sectors are energy (68.1%), transport (16.3%), agriculture (16.7%), and waste (10.0%). In its updated Second NDC, the Republic of Moldova intends to achieve more ambitious targets than in its First NDC. The country’s new economy-wide unconditional target is to reduce its GHG emissions by 70 per cent below its 1990 level in 2030, instead of 64-67 per cent as committed in the First NDC, which could be further increased up to 88 per cent, if international low-cost financial resources, technology transfer, and technical cooperation is ensured. In the updated NDC an adaptation component is included.
The Republic of Moldova is highly vulnerable to climate change and variability, and the socio-economic costs of climate change related to hazards such as droughts, floods, late spring frost and hail are significant. Increasingly erratic weather patterns have resulted in loss of life and income through rising food and energy prices. The most vulnerable sectors are agriculture, human health, water resources, forestry, transport and energy.
Climate change is streamlined into the main strategic planning document of the country – the National Development Strategy “Moldova 2030” (2019). Moldova was amongst the first countries in the word to start developing a Low Emissions Development Strategy to the Year 2020. The Energy Strategy of the Republic of Moldova outlines the climate change mitigation in the sector through to 2030. In 2014 the Government approved the Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, the first national strategic framework, which aims to advance the resilience of the country’s social and economic development processes. It serves as an umbrella strategy which creates the enabling environment for specific sectors to ‘mainstream’ climate change adaptation and risk management into existing and future sectoral adaptation plans. The National Designated Authority in the Climate Change Area is the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, which houses the Climate Change Office.