With a population of around 3.73 million (2018), Georgia contributes as little as 0.03% to the total global GHG emissions and is amongst the lower range of the per capita footprint with 2.79 mt CO2e. The key emitter sectors were energy with 62%, followed by agriculture and industrial processes. In its First Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), Georgia plans to unconditionally reduce its GHG emissions by 15% below the business as usual scenario for the year 2030, to be increased by 10%, subject to international cooperation. The 25% reduction would ensure that Georgian GHG emissions by 2030 will stay by 40% below the 1990 levels.
Georgia is considered highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, facing threats that include increased frequency and severity of droughts, flooding and landslides. These are expected to have serious implications for agriculture in particular, which is central to Georgia’s economy. A changing climate will also significantly impact the coastal zone. The most vulnerable sectors are agriculture, forestry, tourism, health and cultural heritage.
A central document is Georgia’s Low Emissions Development Strategy (LEDS), released in 2017, which sets sectoral targets for reducing emissions in energy, transport, construction, industry, agriculture and waste. At the same time, the government is developing a Climate Action Plan 2021-2030 to provide more detail and guide future climate policy developments. There are a number of other policies in place, which reflect Georgia’s focus on climate change adaptation and preparations for the challenges of the changing climate.
The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Agriculture of Georgia is responsible for the development and implementation of national climate change policy, as well as co-ordination of international climate change negotiations.